Licensees are all those who pay money for the club’s trademark rights to use the brand for clothing or other products, such as toys, sanitary products and much more. A typical example of this would be a sportswear manufacturer who is allowed to produce shirts for the club and uses the shirt's original logo and features for this purpose. But even small manufacturers, such as those who produce fan scarves or stationery items such as calendars, buy licences in the hope of being able to use them profitably for their products.
Royalties are the usage fees that the licensee must pay to the Premier League club. These vary depending on their valorisation – for example, a shirt may incur significantly higher licence fees than an eraser.
Licensing agents act as the middlemen between the Premier League club and all licensees. They do work on the Premier League club’s behalf and make sure that everything is produced in keeping with the brand’s values and that royalties are paid in full.
In this example, the club’s fans can be described as end customers. They have a deep emotional connection to the club and identify strongly with their great love through fan merchandise. As a result, they readily accept that an original will cost significantly more than a comparable product.